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Creative and cultural sector and its importance for the development of the economy with a focus on Poland (before the pandemic)

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Cultural and creative industries, is a relatively new sector of the global economy which is based on the activities of creators of broad media, art and design. The work of the creative industry is to produce and distribute goods and services that are characterized by high market input, thus fulfilling economic benefits.

Currently, in the European Union countries, the largest part of the creative industry is made up of one- or two-person enterprises. The situation in Poland is very similar – microenterprises make up the largest percentage (97%) in the creative sector. Entities with more than 250 employees are marginal and found in large cities. Predictions for the development of the creative industry in Poland are positive – it is estimated that its position in the labor market will become stronger and clearer. In heavy industry sites, more and more publications on the creative sector are appearing, which may be seen as a signal of potential changes in the perception of opportunities for further development.

The leading potantates in this industry are still the UK and Germany, but the value of Poland’s activities in this area is recognized by those who hold the highest positions in the country. For example, a quote from the former prime minister from the expose: “The activity of creators is also a potential source of success for our state, it can also be an important source of economic success […] We will also create favorable conditions for the development of cultural industries culture, because there are such, and the creative sector”.

Some researchers proposed the following models depicting the relationship between the creative sectors and the rest of the national economy

  1. a) caring model – the creative sector being a burden on the economy, generating fewer profits compared to the resources consumed,
  2. b) competitive model – the creative sector as another branch of the economy. Their development does not have the most important impact on the economy,
  3. c) growth model – the development of the creative sector is seen as bringing new solutions that can be used in other areas of the economy, and the authorities are obliged to take special care of the development of the sector in question, as it has a positive impact on the economy as a whole.
  4. d) innovation model – the creative sector seen as an economic system that operates above the economy classically understood, and the most important difference between this model and the others is that the main focus is on the contribution of the creative sector to shaping the process of change, rather than creating economic value.

Some researchers conclude that creativity and innovation will have the greatest impact on Europe’s economic future. This is also the conclusion of “The Economy of Culture in Europe”. It is estimated that competitiveness will have a visible connection with the ability to develop the creative sector. Currently, buyers have a wide choice of products whose prices and technical parameters are similar. Developed economies are solving the problem of price competitiveness by moving production which is labor-intensive, outside their own territory. The location of enterprises in the East, gives the opportunity to produce the same goods at a much lower price. However, this is not a very favorable solution for European economies, where people lose the opportunity to take jobs in traditional industries. It is suggested to look for other ways to minimize job losses while paying attention to supporting competitiveness and developing and harnessing the creativity of Europeans. Continuing the theme of competitiveness, the issue of technical and economic knowledge is essential, but equally important is the demand for increased quality and accessibility to the entire product range, as well as hitting the individual needs of each customer. “What is becoming increasingly important today and is an important factor in competitiveness is in the intangible dimension and is generated by people, these are: skills and ideas, i.e. creativity”.

Referring to the 2010 Green Paper on Unlocking the potential of cultural and creative industries, the European Commission encourages government authorities and entrepreneurs to cooperate between the business world and the cultural sector, resulting in a fuller realization of the potential between the two areas.

The authors of the articles suggest that investing in the creative sector is a value that will also bear fruit in the future, so it is necessary to develop a unified policy strategy in the area of the sector’s activities.


2.5% – this was the share of the creative sector in value added (2008), of which 1.5% was the cultural sector

Considering the industries of the creative sectors that dominate in Poland, one can mention; advertising, publishing, broadcasting, while the largest employment is in places related to literary and artistic creativity, art institutions, libraries, advertising and museums


The development of the cultural industry goes hand in hand with economic development, the technological, cultural and social changes taking place. There is great potential in the creative and cultural sector, given how important a role image, sound, text or symbolism plays in today’s world.

Apart from the fact that the activities of the sector in question are global in scope and have a massive impact, special attention should be paid to the opportunities and strength that lie in the local conditions for development. Implementation of innovative solutions and stimulation of creativity, which has a direct positive impact on economic development, is also a mission for cities and regions.

Looking ahead and predicting the development of the creative and cultural industries over many years is a difficult task, due to the dynamic changes taking place in modern societies

The growth of the described industry is certain, but it should be mentioned that its development is fraught with risks (as exemplified by the outbreak of a pandemic)